## Simulation of dendritic microstructures

### February 24, 2011

[1] Phase-field simulation of micropores constrained by the dendritic network during solidification

H Meidani and A Jacot

A phase-field model has been developed to describe the morphology of pores constrained by a dendritic solid network, and are forced to adopt complex non-spherical shapes. The distribution of the solid, liquid and gas phases was calculated with a multiphase-field approach which accounts for the pressure difference between the liquid and the gas. The model considers the partitioning of the dissolved gas at interfaces, gas diffusion and capillary forces at the solid/liquid, liquid/gas and gas/solid interfaces. The model was used to study the influence of the dendrite arm spacing (DAS) and the solid fraction on the state of a pore. The calculations show that a pore constrained to grow in a narrow liquid channel exhibits a substantially higher mean curvature, a larger pressure and a smaller volume than an unconstrained pore. Comparisons with simple geometrical models indicate that analytical approaches show a good trend but tend to underestimate the pore curvature, in particular at high solid fractions, where pores have to penetrate the thin liquid channels. For pores spanning over distances larger than the average DAS, the simulations showed that the radius of curvature can vary between two limits, which are given by the size of the narrowest section that the pore needs to pass in order to expand and by the largest sphere that can be fitted in the interdendritic liquid. The pore curvature is therefore a complex non-monotonic function of the DAS, the solid fraction, the hydrogen content and statistical variations of the liquid channel width.

[2] Simulation of a dendritic microstructure with the lattice Boltzmann and cellular automaton methods

H Yin et al

A new modeling approach combining the lattice Boltzmann method (LB) and the cellular automaton technique (CA) was developed to simulate solidification at the microscale. The LB method was used for the coupled calculation of temperature, solute content and velocity field, while the CA method was used to compute the liquid/solid phase change. To validate the accuracy of the LB–CA model and its efficiency for the simulation of dendrite growth under convection, comparisons of the tip characteristics and dendrite morphologies under various simulation conditions were made with those obtained by analytical means and by a finite element model coupled with the cellular automaton technique (FE–CA model). The results show that the LB–CA model is computationally much more efficient than the FE–CA model for simulations of dendritic microstructures under convection. The tip splitting phenomenon was captured for high cooling rates and with comparatively coarse grids due to mesh-induced anisotropy and thermal instabilities. The simulated dendrite morphologies obtained with various anisotropy and Gibbs–Thomson coefficients were discussed. The results show that the dendrite growth direction does not always follow the crystallographic direction and high branching phenomena can occur with small anisotropy and/or Gibbs–Thomson coefficients.